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Resarch methodology


Open Posted By: taniatemoor Date: 29/08/2020 Academic Level: High School Paper Type: Report Writing

Write the abstract and the critical analysis of the resarch paper attached.


Category: Accounting & Finance Subjects: Finance Deadline: 24 Hours Budget: $60 - $90 Pages: 2-3 Pages (Short Assignment)

Attachment 1

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1. INTRODUCTION 

In recent years, energy harvesting from ambient vibration [I and human motion [2] has received both considerable industrial and academic interest due to advances in micro-electronic technology leading to an increased computation efficiency and reduced power consumption of wireless sensors and portable electronic devices. In addition to environmental benefits associated with limiting the disposal of traditional batteries, energy harvesting technologies [3] provide a great promising of autonomous and self-powered electronic devices for safety monitoring, structure-embedded diagnosis and medical implants. The narrowband issues of linear resonant piezoelectric energy harvesters have motivated several research groups to develop the nonlinear monostable [4], bistable [5] and tristable [6] approaches to enhance frequency bandwidth and output power. The theoretical analysis and experimental verification of those nonlinear energy harvesters have been extensively investigated under harmonic and stochastic excitations [7-9]. For the realistic excitation, Green [2] numerically analyzed the efficiency of nonlinear energy harvesting from human motion and Cao [10] applied the time-varying potential bistable energy harvester to human motion to demonstrate its better performance than the linear one. However, tristable energy harvesting performance has not yet been evaluated under realistic excitations induced by human motions. Therefore, the paper employs tristable magnetic coupled piezoelectric cantilever to harvest energy from human walking and running. Based on the characteristics of human motion, theoretical model of nonlinear tristable energy harvester with time-varying potential energy function is established. And experiment results show that the tristable energy harvester exhibits better performance than the linear one when applied to harvesting energy from human walking and running. 

2. ELEC TROMECHANICAL MODEL 

The magnetic coupled piezoelectric energy harvester with external magnets is illustrated in Fig.1 (a). The configuration consists of a stainless steel substrate, two symmetric PZT-51 piezoelectric layers at the root, tip magnet attachments and two external magnets. 

Tristable energy harvester can be obtained by adjusting the parameters h, d and a.When harvester is applied to harvesting energy from human motion , the lower limb swing motion will drive the cantilever to swing a certain angle (shown in Fig.1 (b) which results in a time-varying potential energy function due of the beam. On these conditions, the electromechanical model of the nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesters with time-varying potential energy function can be given by the following equation: 

Where m is the equivalent mass and c is the equivalent damping. 0 is the equivalent electromechanical coupling coefficient, Cp is the equivalent capacitance of the piezoelectric materials, R is the load resistance, v(t) is the voltage across the electrical load, x() is tip displacement of the harvester in the transverse direction, B(t) is the swing angle of the human leg and al) is the external excitation. (x, B)) is the time-varying potential energy function described as the integral of nonlinear restoring force depending on structural parameters and the swing angle Bt) shown in Fig.1 (b). It is found that the time-varying potential energy function mainly attributes to the gravity effect under different sway angles where the magnetic force similar B 0. Therefore, the restoring force of the nonlinear harvester can be approximated by 

Where Fis the restoring force for B 0. The time-varying potential energy function in Equation. (1) is: 

In this paper it is assumed that the clockwise angle is positive otherwise negative.

3. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION 

In the experiment, the energy harvester is tied to human leg for harvesting energy from human motion as shown in Fig.2. An acceleration sensor (CXL04GP3) and an angle sensor (BWD-VG100) are used to collect the acceleration and swing angle data. A displacement sensor (HL-GI) is applied to measure the tip displacement of the cantilever. All the measured data are acquired by an oscilloscope (MSOX3052A) with 10 M2 resistance. The cantilever is made of stainless steel of 90x10x0.27 mm3. Two PZT-51 have dimension of 12x10x0.6 mm3. All the magnets used in the experiment are NdFeB cylinder magnets and the endmost ones have the dimension of 8x6x4 mm3 while the external magnets have diameter of 25 mm, and has the dimension thickness of 5 mm.

A tristable energy harvester (TEH) with three stable equilibrium points is adjusted to harvest energy from human motion and the traditional linear energy harvester (LEH) is used to compare. In the experiment, the restoring forces of the cantilever are measured by the system Mark-10 and the fitted curve is plotted in Fig. 3 while the corresponding potential energy functions are illustrated in Fig.4. The asymmetry in the potential energy function can be viewed as due to imperfections caused by the evenly distributed material and structure or eccentricity of magnetic force. 

In the experiment, the nonlinear restoring forces of tristable harvester at different swing angle+11 and +31o are measured to demonstrate the time-varying potential energy function and the corresponding potential energy functions are plotted in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. When the swing angle is negative, the left potential well depth increase while the right one becomes shallow and in this condition the potential well in the middle does not disappear. When the swing angles are 11o and 31°, the left potential well depth decreases while the right increases gradually. Moreover, the potential well in the middle disappears when the swing angle is 31°. Furthermore, larger swing angle has greater influence on the potential well than small angle. Obviously, when the tristable harvester is applied to human limb, the swing motion will greatly increase the harvesting efficiency.

One participant (weight: 63Kg; Height: 175cm) asked to walk or run at the speed of 4-9 km/h on treadmill the motion acceleration, swing angle, output voltage and tip displacement. The acceleration and swing angle data for speed 5 km/h are shown in Fig.7. It can be seen the amplitude of the acceleration reach about 2g and it exhibits maximum value when the foot strikes the treadmill. For the swing motion, the lower limb swing about 60° to backward and 15° to the forward. experimental results show that the acceleration and swing angle range increase with the increasing of the motion speed. The tip displacement and voltage response as well as the frequency spectrum at the speed of 5 km/h are illustrated in Fig.8. The tristable harvester could travels across the potential well frequently and does large amplitude inter-well motion between the three stable equilibrium points because of the leg swing motion strike, thus generates large output voltage. Furthermore, frequency spectrum in Fig.8 shows that the response frequency ranges from 4 Hz to 8 Hz which is probably due to the nonlinear restoring force. The average output power of the tristable and linear energy harvesters different motion speed are shown in Fig.9. It can be found that the tristable energy harvester performs better than the linear one at any motion speed. Further, the average output power increases with the increasing of the motion speed and the maximum average output power of the tristable energy harvester is 16.38uW.

4. CONCLUSION 

The electromechanical model of the tristable energy harvester with time-varying potential energy function is proposed based on the characteristics of human motion. Detailed restoring forces of the tristable energy harvester under different swing angles are measured and the corresponding potential energy functions are obtained. Further, a measurement system is setup to collect the acceleration, swing angle as well as the voltage data generated during human motion, experimental results under various motion speeds show that the tristable energy harvester exhibits better performance than the linear one for harvesting vibration energy from human walking or running. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This research is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51421004, 51575426), National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project (No: 2012YQ03026101), Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. NCET-12-0453), and Fundamental Research Funds For the central universities of China (Grant No. CXTD2014001).

Attachment 2

QEAD Rev:03 ver 01 9th July 2017 Template A 1

F/QAP/021/001

Name of the programme BEng (GCU) CAME, MT, POM, EE, CO, EPE, TE

Name of Module with Code Research Methodology, MHH124715

Level/Semester & AY Level 4/Semester A 2018-19

Name of the Module Leader/Tutor

Dr. Dinesh Keloth kaithari and Dr. K. Suresh Manic / Mr.Ali Abdullah Hamed Al-Mahruqi and Dr.Vijayalakshmi K.

Coursework Type Research Methods

Assessment weightage 25 % of Overall Assessment

Type and date of submission Online 08 th November 2018

Aim  To assess the students understanding of Research Methods & achievement of learning outcomes of the module with respect to the abilities to critically analyse technical papers, interpret scientific & technical data, proper referencing and citation of the literature.

Learning Outcomes  Illustrate the aims and objectives of project

 Evaluate the literature relevant to a chosen project topic

Tasks

Task-1: A technical paper will be given to the student by his/her Project Supervisor and he/she

will be required to write a critical analysis and an abstract based on the scientific information

available in the paper.

[70 marks (Abstract writing: 30 Marks & Critical Analysis Writing: 40 marks)]

Abstract:

The Abstract must contain description of the topic, important applications of the topic, brief

description about previous literature present in the paper, methodology adopted by the author,

important results obtained and conclusions derived from the results. The word count is limited to

250 words and keywords should be written at the end of the abstract.

CONTENT MAX MARKS

ABSTRACT DEVELOPMENT 20

WRITING QUALITY, LOGICAL AND FOCUSED 5

BASIC GRAMMAR, SPELLING AND OTHER CONVENTIONS 5

TOTAL 30

QEAD Rev:03 ver 01 9th July 2017 Template A 2

F/QAP/021/001

Critical Analysis: With the introduction to the topic, students are expected to critically analyze

the literature part that contains key findings of previous authors, methodology adopted in given

paper, parameters used for analysis, analyze the results obtained (from graphs/tables),

important conclusions derived based on the result, weaknesses in the paper and scope of

further investigations identified. Each topic has to be separately presented in the form of

paragraphs and the word count for this part is limited to a range of 500 to 750.

TASK-2: Visit the Library & Resource Center, e-brary and Internet sites and look for the

literature like books, e-books, journal/conference papers, report, articles, and videos etc.,

(preferably) related to the project topic or area. For this literature found, write the in-text citation

and prepare the reference in CCE-Harvard referencing style.

There must be: 2 Library books or E-library books, 5 Journal or Conference Papers/Reports or

Magazine Articles etc., 2 Web based resource like websites, electronic report, videos etc. and

1 Image in Book.

Suggestive format for the Task 2

S.No Type of

Resource

Citation (In-text) –CCE

Harvard Style

Reference List Entry

1. Journal

Paper

…………….. ……………………..

2. Book ………. ……………………

3. Website ……. …………………………

4 Image in

Book

CONTENT MAX MARKS

DOES THE WORK SHOW AN UNDERSTANDING OF TECHNICAL CONTENTS OF THE PAPER? 5

COULD THE STUDENT CLEARLY IDENTIFY THE OBJECTIVE OF THE PAPER AND RELATE THAT

TO OTHER EARLIER WORKS CITED IN THE PAPER?

10

DID THE STUDENT ARGUE / EVALUATE THE METHODS / TECHNIQUES USED BY THE AUTHORS

OF THE PAPER?

15

COULD THE STUDENT IDENTIFY ANY WEAKNESSES IN THE PAPER? 5

IS ANY SCOPE FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION IDENTIFIED BY THE STUDENT? 5

TOTAL 40

CONTENT MAX MARKS

In text Citations

For the ten citations, 1 mark each for correct in-text citations

10x1 = 10

References

For the corresponding 10 References, 2 mark each for correct listing of

references to confirm to the CCE- Harvard Referencing style.

10x2 = 20

TOTAL 30

QEAD Rev:03 ver 01 9th July 2017 Template A 3

F/QAP/021/001

Marking scheme

Component Description Weightage (%)

1 Knowledge and understanding of the topic

30%

2 Application and analysis of the topic (Module specific Skill)

35%

3 The structure in terms of logic and coherence

30%

4 The use of relevant work examples and/or examples gained from further reading

5%

Total 100

Instructions

1. Plagiarism is a serious offence. In case of any plagiarism detected, penalty will be

imposed leading to zero mark. Policy and guidelines for dealing with plagiarism and

malpractice in examination can be viewed by clicking:

http://portal.cce.edu.om/member/contentdetails.aspx?id=490

2. The course work shall be subject to plagiarism software check.

3. Course work should be submitted on time. College guidelines on late submission of

coursework can be viewed by clicking:

http://portal.cce.edu.om/member/contentdetails.aspx?id=565

4. Course work should be submitted with an appropriate cover page, which can be

obtained from the departmental assistant at the department.

5. Name, student identification and title of the course work to be written clearly and legibly

on the cover page.

6. The completed course work is to be submitted to the departmental assistant on or before

the deadline and record your name, date of submission and signature in the book with

the departmental assistant.

7. For online submission of course work, pdf file with appropriate cover page mentioning

name of student, student number and title of the course work should be uploaded using

the submission link created and made available by the module leader.

Referencing

Harvard Referencing (CCE Style) First Edition 2013 should be followed for both in-text and

listing references. This downloadable document can be found in our CCE portal at:

http://portal.cce.edu.om/member/contentdetails.aspx?cid=628

Name and Signature of Module leader Dr. Dinesh keloth kaithari and Dr. K. Suresh Manic Date: 08-07-2018

QEAD Rev:03 ver 01 9th July 2017 Template A 4

F/QAP/021/001

Research Methodology – CW1 (25% overall)

Task.1 (70% OF CW1)

CRTICAL REVIEW OF TECHNICAL PAPER - MARKING SHEET

STUDENT’S NAME ______________________________________________________________

STUDENT NO: _________________ PROGRAMME: ____________________

PROJECT TITLE: ________________________________________________________________

* Please ✓ the option and assign the marks appropriately in the ‘Marks’ column.

ABSTRACT (30 MARKS)

O U

T S

T A

N D

IN G

(9 0-

10 0)

E X

C E

L L

E N

T

(8 0-

89 )

V E

R Y

G O

O D

(7 0-

79 )

G O

O D

(6 0-

69 )

S A

T IS

F A

C T

O R

Y

(5 0-

59 )

F A

IL

(< 50

% )

M A

R K

S

ABSTRACT DEVELOPMENT

/20

WRITING QUALITY: LOGICAL AND FOCUSED

/5

BASIC GRAMMAR, SPELLING AND OTHER

CONVENTIONS.

/5

CRITICAL ANALYSIS (40 MARKS)

O U

T S

T A

N D

IN G

(9 0-

10 0)

E X

C E

L L

E N

T

(8 0-

89 )

V E

R Y

G O

O D

(7 0-

79 )

G O

O D

(6 0-

69 )

S A

T IS

F A

C T

O R

Y

(5 0-

59 )

F A

IL

(< 50

% )

M A

R K

S

DOES THE WORK SHOW AN UNDERSTANDING OF

TECHNICAL CONTENTS OF THE PAPER? /5

COULD THE STUDENT CLEARLY IDENTIFY THE

OBJECTIVE OF THE PAPER AND RELATE THAT TO

OTHER EARLIER WORKS CITED IN THE PAPER?

/10

DID THE STUDENT ARGUE / EVALUATE THE

METHODS / TECHNIQUES USED BY THE AUTHORS

OF THE PAPER?

/15

COULD THE STUDENT IDENTIFY ANY

WEAKNESSES IN THE PAPER? /5

IS ANY SCOPE FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION

IDENTIFIED BY THE STUDENT? /5

TOTAL MARKS (TASK 1) /70

SIGN AND NAME OF THE MARKER

QEAD Rev:03 ver 01 9th July 2017 Template A 5

F/QAP/021/001

Task 2 (30% OF CW1)

REFERENCING MARKING SHEET

STUDENT’S NAME ______________________________________________________________

STUDENT NO: _________________ PROGRAMME: ____________________

PROJECT TITLE: ________________________________________________________________

Description Marks

In text Citations

For the ten citations as per CW1 guidelines, 1 mark each for correct in- text citations as per CCE- Harvard Referencing style (10x1=10marks)

/10

References

For the corresponding 10 References as per CW1 guidelines, 2 mark each for correct listing of references to confirm to the CCE- Harvard Referencing style. (10x2 = 20marks)

/20

TOTAL MARKS(Task 2) /30

TOTAL MARKS (TASK 1 = …………..+ TASK 2=………….) /100

COMMENTS:

SIGN AND NAME OF THE MARKER